MACHINERY


READER: When you speak of driving out Modern civilization, I suppose you will also say that we want no machinery and industry.

EDITOR: 1) A old story: A man in his entourage to countryside come across a farmer, whose two son’s was moving Persian wheel by their own hands to fetch water from the well. He enquired the reason from the farmer and asks, are you not aware of modern means to fetch water from the well, why are you using your own son’s in place of ox/buffalo, motor etc.

Farmer said ‘he knows about all the development taken place in agriculture sector and also heard about its best practices, but as I myself and my two son have not been able to find out alternate avenue to utilize their youthful energy, so we decided to do it ourselves and wish to continue the same till we find out gainful alternate avenues for our energies.

We know that by sitting idle, we will only watch idiot boxes(television, video, mobile etc.) or will roam around in motor and enlarge our waist size and then may be will go gymnasium for work-out to maintain our figure. We find it better to work- in (beginning in the field with our own hand and enjoy) rather than work-out (first becoming fat and lazy by using machineries in the field and then going to gymnasium and using mechanized tread mills).

2) The starting and development of machinery has taken place due to vulnerability and unpredictability of mankind and hence to avoid them.

At first all mechanization being done for faster multiplication of the same kind and now mechanization is being done to mitigate mankind, it is making men tempted and then tempered.

3) It is very surprising that machine are used where manpower appears to be costly e.g. tea/coffee vending machines and manpower is used where machine are costly e.g. mining industries, scrap industries, Asbestos and radioactive areas, removing hot ash and burning coal from milling area in power plants etc.

On the similar questions Mr. Gandhi replies are:

ANS:
By raising this question, you have opened the wound I have received. When I read Mr. Dutt’s ‘Economic History of India’ I wept; and as I think of it again my heart sickens. It is machinery that has impoverished India. It is difficult to measure the harm that Manchester has done to us. It is due to Manchester that Indian handicraft has all but disappeared.

But I make a mistake. How can Manchester be blamed? We wore Manchester cloth and this is why Manchester wove it. I was delighted when I read about the bravery of Bengal. There were no cloth mills in that presidency. They were, therefore, able to restore the original hand-weaving occupation. It is true Bengal encourages the mill-industry of Bombay. If Bengal had proclaimed a boycott of all machine-made goods, it would have been much better.

Machinery has begun to desolate Europe. Ruination is now knocking at the English gates. Machinery is the chief symbol of modern civilization; it represents a great sin.

The workers in the mills of Bombay have become slaves. The condition of the women working in the mills is shocking. When there were no mills, these women were not starving. If the machinery craze grows in our country, it will become an unhappy land. It may be considered a heresy, but I am bound to say that it were better for us to send money to Manchester and to use flimsy Manchester cloth than to multiply mills in India. By using Manchester cloth we only waste our money; but by reproducing Manchester in India, we shall keep our money at the price of our blood, because our very moral being will be sapped, and I call in support of my statement the very mill-hands as witnesses. And those who have amassed wealth out of factories are not likely to be better than other rich men. It would be folly to assume that an Indian Rockefeller would be better than the American Rockefeller. Impoverished India can become free, but it will be hard for any India made rich through immorality to regain its freedom. I fear we shall have to admit that moneyed men support British rule; their interest is bound up with its stability. Money renders a man helpless. The other thing which is equally harmful is sexual vice. Both are poison. A snake-bite is a lesser poison than these two, because the former merely destroys the body but the latter destroy body, mind and soul. We need not, therefore, be pleased with the prospect of the growth of the mill-industry.

QST: Are the mills, then, to be closed down?

ANS: That is difficult. It is no easy task to do away with a thing that is established. We, therefore, say that the non-beginning of a thing is supreme wisdom.”

I am not aiming at destroying railways or hospitals, though I would certainly welcome their natural destruction. Neither railways nor hospitals are a test of a high and pure civilization. At best they are a necessary evil. Neither adds one inch to the moral stature of a nation. Nor I am aiming at a permanent summation devoutly to be wished. Still less am I trying to destroy all machinery and mills. It requires a higher simplicity and renunciation than the people are today prepared for.

QST: You have so far spoken about machine- made cloth, but there are innumerable machine-made things. We have either to import them or to introduce machinery into our country.

ANS: Indeed, our goods even are made in Germany. What need, then, to speak of matches, pins and glassware? My answer can be only one. What did India do before these articles were introduced? Precisely the same should be done today. As long as we cannot make pins without machinery so long will we do without them? The tinsel splendor of glassware we will have nothing to do with, and we will make wicks, as of old, with home-grown cotton and use handmade earthen saucers for lamps. So doing, we shall save our eyes and money and support Swadeshi and so shall we attain Home Rule.

It is not to be conceived that all men will do all these things at one time or that some men will give up all machine made things at once. But, if the thought is sound, we shall always find out what we can give up and gradually cease to use it. What a few may do, others will copy; and the movement will grow like the cocoanut of the mathematical problem. What the leaders do, the populace will gladly do in turn. The matter is neither complicated nor difficult. You and I need not wait until we can carry others with us. Those will be the losers who will not do it, and those who will not do it, although they appreciate the truth, will deserve to be called cowards.

QST: What, then, of the train, cars and electricity?

ANS: This question is now too late. It signifies nothing. If we are to do without the railways we shall have to do without the tramcars. Machinery is like a snake-hole which may contain from one to a hundred snakes. Where there is machinery there are large cities; and where there are large cities, there are tram-cars and railways, and there only does one see electric light. English villages do not boast of any of these things. Honest physicians will tell you that where means of artificial locomotion have increased, the health of the people has suffered. I remember that when in a European town there a scarcity of money was. The receipts of the tramway company, of the lawyers, and of the doctors went down and people were less unhealthy. I cannot recall a single good point in connection with machinery. Books can be written to demonstrate its evils.

QST: Is it a good point or a bad one that all you are saying will be printed through machinery?

ANS: This is one of those instances which demonstrate that sometimes poison is used to kill poison. This, then, will not be a good point regarding machinery. As it expires, the machinery, as it were, says to us: “Beware and avoid me. You will derive no benefits from me and the benefit that may accrue from printing will avail only those who are infected with the machinery craze.”

Do not, therefore, forget the main thing. It is necessary to realize that machinery is bad. We shall then be able gradually to do away with it. Nature has not provided any way whereby we may reach a desired goal all of a sudden. If, instead of welcoming machinery as a boon, we should look upon it as an evil, it would ultimately go.

READER: When Mr. Gandhi writes (part of which is reproduced below):

When I read Mr. Dutt’s ‘Economic History of India’ I wept; and as I think of it again my heart sickens. It is machinery that has impoverished India. It is difficult to measure the harm that Manchester has done to us. It is due to Manchester that Indian handicraft has all but disappeared.

Machinery has begun to desolate Europe. Ruination is now knocking at the English gates. Machinery is the chief symbol of modern civilization; it represents a great sin. The workers in the mills of Bombay have become slaves. The condition of the women working in the mills is shocking. When there were no mills, these women were not starving. If the machinery craze grows in our country, it will become an unhappy land.

It would be folly to assume that an Indian Rockefeller would be better than the American Rockefeller.

Impoverished India can become free, but it will be hard for any India made rich through immorality to regain its freedom. I fear we shall have to admit that moneyed men support British rule; their interest is bound up with its stability.

Money renders a man helpless. The other thing which is equally harmful is sexual vice. Both are poison. A snake-bite is a lesser poison than these two, because the former merely destroys the body but the latter destroy body, mind and soul. We need not, therefore, be pleased with the prospect of the growth of the mill- industry.

Then when a direct question was asked from Mr. Gandhi: Are the mills, then, to be closed down? Mr. Gandhi answers:

That is difficult. It is no easy task to do away with a thing that is established. We, therefore, say that the non-beginning of a thing is supreme wisdom.”

I am not aiming at destroying railways or hospitals, though I would certainly welcome their natural destruction. Neither railways nor hospitals are a test of a high and pure civilization. At best they are a necessary evil. Neither adds one inch to the moral stature of a nation. Nor I am aiming at a permanent summation devoutly to be wished. Still less am I trying to destroy all machinery and mills. It requires a higher simplicity and renunciation than the people are today prepared for.

What is your opinion on above seemingly contradictory statement, atleast I feel bewildered?

EDITOR:
These are called bouncers and such Jalebi like statements which are replied with hundred eighty degree turn i.e. just reversal- That is difficult (closure of mills). It is no easy task to do away with a thing that is established. We, therefore, say that the non-beginning of a thing is supreme wisdom.” I am not aiming at destroying railways or hospitals, though I would certainly welcome their natural destruction.) must have been considered by English and other industrialist to take the opposition of Mr. Gandhi lightly, and opposition for the sake of opposition with high degree of intellect but without any warning what to call an attack on industries. Such statements are liked by the industrialist and definitely they promote such person, but in real sense such statements reduces value of persons even if he is of the stature of Mr. Gandhi.

READER: What is your opinion on import of machineries, enhancement of mechanizations in the country, on the train, cars and electricity, closure or shutting down of industries and finally if you are for shutting down of mills then what you will say on the fact that whatever you are saying will be printed through machineries?

EDITOR: Point-wise replies are as below:
Many of the problems in western countries are due to over mechanization so much so that entire country becomes stand still on the collapse of electrical supply. This is clear cut sign of slavery to machine, in other word entire country can be put to ransom by playing with the electricity. This is not a comfortable situation either for individual or for country. Indigenous, import or export of machinery should pass the test of wisdom and need to be optimized rather than enhanced blindly.

With all these you can afford big cities and can easily encapsulate men within four walls in smaller flat. These are ways to complicate the life, whereas life can be enjoyed more in simplicity even without train, cars and electricity. Though these entire things have now come under the purview of necessity but its uses need to be discussed and optimized.

Certainly many mills need to be closed down, e.g. Farm and farm supporting industry, in the countries where per capita agriculture land holding is getting reduced development of these industries cannot be justified. Primary work has to be physical, secondary work has to be semi/partly mechanized, tertiary work has to be technologically driven and other advance stage to be automatic (agriculture and thread making for clothing is to be physical, processing of food to be semi mechanical, packing is to be technologically driven.

In India we have transferred large wisdom by listening and remembering (Shruti and Smriti) wisdom is carried forwarded from brain to brain and feelings were transferred through heart to heart and entire personality used to be reflected through individual actions. Individual action and mouth to mouth publicity was and is considered to be the best. Printing, publishing, purchasing, keeping in library, reading, analyzing, then acting or forgetting can be considered as second or third rated.

READER: When Mr. Gandhi writes (part of which is reproduced below):

Money renders a man helpless. The other thing which is equally harmful is sexual vice. Both are poison. A snake-bite is a lesser poison than these two, because the former merely destroys the body but the latter destroy body, mind and soul. We need not, therefore, be pleased with the prospect of the growth of the mill- industry.

What did India do before these articles were introduced? Precisely the same should be done today.

Do not, therefore, forget the main thing. It is necessary to realize that machinery is bad. We shall then be able gradually to do away with it. Nature has not provided any way whereby we may reach a desired goal all of a sudden. If, instead of welcoming machinery as a boon, we should look upon it as an evil, it would ultimately go.

That Indian civilization is the best and that the European is a nine days’ wonder. Such ephemeral civilizations have often come and gone and will continue to do so.

What is your opinion?

EDITOR:
On above, two three things must be taken into consideration:

1 To say like above is to curse entire human evaluation i.e. in a way to curse god’s creation.

2 One can easily go to the jungle leaving all cloths, whether he survives or not is different thing. Generally only few can relinquish the thing(luxurious material, money, sex and ego) just by understanding its futility without actually getting involved in these, but large number amongst us can leave only after involving (in all these material things/activities) and understanding its futility. In this way we can say that we have seen enough of industrialization and also started feeling problems because of industrialization, should we not think of its optimization?

3 Few says all vices are bad whether it is of money, machinery, material, manpower or market, or it is of narcotics or sex, and so many turn blind eye to these, still few others say that there are good virtues (which is suggested by saint and scripture) as well, and they say that above things has to be put in use, and still there are other who say’s nothing is bad, be at rhythms and don’t get attached to anything.

Further you are requested to refer Pollution, Environment and Employment generation from Mita-Life Style agenda:

POLLUTION

Pollution is accumulation of undesired at desired place or accumulation of something where it is not required. Such accumulation whether it is in air, water or land causes disturbance in the natural balances not only of air, water, earth but also of fire and free space i.e. the overall eco-system.
For air pollution -
1. Basic cause is burning of large quantity of fuels, which will have to be tackled by use of efficient automobile, efficient combustion at other places, basically by efficiency improvement in all the burning and proper discharge of waste and dead animals.
2. Stoppage of encouragement of consumerism in automobile and electrical sector, easy availability of loan for using these, has to be reviewed.
3. Decongestion of cities/metros will have to be taken up. Concept of standardized city needs to be planned, discussed, reviewed and implemented.
4. Tree plantation has to be improved and tree cutting will have to be allowed where it is causing hurdles in traffic and in turn adding to pollution.
5. Decibel limits of automobile and other honking will have to be implemented at the manufacturing level itself. Excessive use of honking/loudspeakers needs to be restricted (by monetary fines)
6. Optimization (minimization) of wastage and optimization of uses will have to be encouraged in energy sector in place of conservation of energy and simply hiking the tariff. Research and development will have to be encouraged to find out special plant/tree for special discharge in the industry. In industries concept of plantation on fences and poles will have to be encouraged.
7. Research and development will have to be encouraged for control of pollution in mining area and ash disposal system of coal power plants, refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer plants etc.

For water pollution-
1. Pollution treatment plant will have to be discussed for implementation at area level and even on individual house level (kitchen waste water can be treated and reused in toilet flush, for watering gardens, etc.).
2. Religious bodies, which regard rivers, wells, ponds, lakes etc., as sacrosanct, (Previously urinating or toileting in water bodies were looked as unethical, but now we started discharging even sewerage in river) will have to be encouraged to take care of pollution in water bodies. If we can manage our rivers and water bodies free from pollution, then hardly this issue is important for large section of our society.
3. In tropical countries problem of water treatment is less in comparison to colder countries, because of fast oxidation in hotter area, so more effort is required at colder places like Himalaya, Antarctica, etc.
For Nuclear and asbestos waste:
It has to be stored in no-man (Barron) Island after digging deep and then making layers of cement concrete. It needs not to be disposed in third world country or in sea or in space.

For land pollution-
1. Polythene will have to be utilized in road making. Scavenger will have to be utilized to segregate the waste and earn by supplying scrap to process industries, and biological waste to prepare the biological manure
2. Architecture service will have to be improved in town and country planning, for utilization of natural sun light, air circular and solar heating [For efficient use of electricity].
Healing the healer by respecting five elements, i.e. space, water, air, fire and earth, and darshan (philosophy) of “kunye ka paani kunye mein jaaye hamare kapde sookh jaye” (let well water go to well and dry our clothes) will have to be the basis of maintaining environment and ecology.

VATAWARAN (ENVIRONMENT)

Environment –“Vatawaran the cover of air” reflects our living in the same way as our dress and uniform reflect us individually. It is our nature that creates, maintains and sustains the Nature and vice versa. As we experiment with the Nature, we are also being experimented by the Nature in some way or the other.
When environment of any area or planet becomes conducive to life it creates and generates life and when we change the Nature and make it difficult for any species, it extinguishes in physical form leaving its energy wave in environment. Whenever environment becomes the same it resurfaces. It is true for the Earth as well as for the Moon and Mars. It follows reversibility in the law of circles and expansion of this circle. It may be possible that this circle completes in a minute or a month or may be millions of years; time depends on where the circle of Nature is drawn; if it is within the planet then it takes hundreds to thousands of years and if it is intra- planet it is billions of years.
In the breaking and making of planet and also in the breaking and making of inter-planet and intra-planet atmosphere, hotter particles, hot particles, moderate cool and colder particles join together and form the zone, such zones are connected with varying energy wave. Between two equally strong hot places, perfect vacuum appears and such places are called black hole. Shapes of such holes are like triangle, square, hexagon or circular, and shape depends on a number of equal and opposite heat/energy source. On earth planet it appears as a triangle, and named as Bermuda triangle.
Every planet has its share of solid mass, liquid and gases and shape of planets is always elliptical whereas that of sun is spherical. The movement of planet in solar system follows the path of almost circular line and movement is caused by the slight imbalance between the energies of different solar system, and rotation on its axis is caused by simultaneous heating and cooling of earth (planet) surface. Tides in sea on full moon appear because of energy blocked by moon. This blockage of sun energy by moon also causes some imbalances in human head and those who suffer psychologically on this count are called lunatic. Entire solar system also moves to its nearest and bigger solar system and this movement is in straight line between two light sources and in zigzag line in case of multiple big solar systems and big-bang happens when two or more solar systems collide.
Continuance of planet depends on various forces of its own solar system and other solar systems, and most importantly internal activity within the planet and somewhat on its intervention and so called search and research of other planet. This continuance is broken in the same way as that of any living species (As we die and take birth so are the planets and solar system).
Environment longevity, liveliness, luxury and loveliness depend on how the interaction between participants takes place. Environment on earth which has poles and poles apart, area which has almost six months cycle of day and night to the areas of approximately twelve hours day and night, area with full snow, the cold desert and area with full sand, the hot desert. There are areas with misty cold atmosphere to area with moistly hot. These are all part of the earth body. Slight disturbance to any area causes slight/small ripple in other area, and larger intervention in any area causes major disturbance in other area and is reflected as draught, flood, cyclone, and earthquake, tsunami on occasional basis, and pollution and global warming on continuous basis. This reflection on livestock is reflected as some disease on occasional basis and stress, strain, tension and (blood) pressure on continuous basis.
In Nature and existence, attraction of same is norm in unipolar, unisex or unitype item, and of opposite in bipolar item and as such this defines all repulsion or attraction.
In such a close knit system if any country thinks and acts for protecting their immediate environment and thereby buying trees from Himalayan region, maintaining their oil reserve and unnecessarily burning other areas fuel, reserving their mine and buying ores from other area, cannot protect their environment but is living in a fool’s paradise. We must understand that flood emanating from Himalaya by melting of ice will, not only draw a part of Bangladesh but also a part of other countries‟ coastal areas as well. Excessive carbon dioxide emission from Delhi, London, and Paris does affect its neighboring areas and countries.
We understand the harmony of Nature and regard the earth as mother and sky as father. We never think in the line of conquering the Nature, so it’s our prima facie responsibility to correct our environment and guide the world at large for harmonious coexistence.
Followings are required to maintain the environment:
First and foremost is not to promote unnecessary consumerism and get tempted by it.
1) Sale of raw wood for import and export purpose must be stopped. We must request other countries for the stoppage of export of raw wood.
2) Ore/manure import and export must be stopped, only finished goods of metal and semi-metal should be promoted for export and import.
3) We have to ask our print media to exercise restraint in increasing number of pages of newspaper. Import and export duty on print media need to be rationalized
4) Bharat will not perform any major nuclear test in sea or land and will request the international community for the same as land and water are interconnected and belong to the entire living. Bharat will not take part in any expedition to other planet, but will limit to the Moon.
5) Unnecessary restriction on account of ozone layer depletion will not be accepted and costlier technology on this count for third world will not be encouraged and accepted.
6) For (heating) energy purpose use of primary produce e.g. wood, coal, gas, and solar heating system will have to be promoted and use of secondary source such as electricity, hydrogen gas need not be promoted.
7) Large-scale construction such as mega-dams, mega cities, interlinking of rivers will not be taken up and promoted neither in Bharat nor elsewhere.
8) Complexity of life in business, in administration and in entire life will have to be eased out for simplicity and its closeness with Nature.
9) Traffic restriction on account of obsolete forest rule and encroachment in cities on account of plant conservation will be removed.
10) Haphazard growth of housing sector and automobile sector will be streamlined for the benefit of entire nation and its neighboring countries.
11) Major tree plantation will be taken up in Bharat and if allowed then in neighboring countries of Himalayan region.
12) It is searched that for reducing maximum temperature by two degrees of Hyderabad city, at least ten lakh trees need to be planted of bigger variety such as Pipal, Neem, Banyan, Mango etc. Bharat will have to take special drive to plant ten lakh (average) trees each in its five hundred approx. districts and five lakh in each block level.
13) Tree plantation will belong to individual as well as to its local centre. Cutting of any tree for any purpose will be a subject matter of ‘society of senior citizen’ of that area.
14) Major employment will be created for tree plantation, each bigger tree plantation and watering would get to some money along with right of its fruits and flowers. All employment seekers will get an opportunity for tree plantation and its growth and would get minimum livelihood amount as reward with a right on its produce. This exercise will be taken up with the help of religious institution and senior citizens and Members of Parliament in place of existing system of municipalities/bureaucracy.
15) Through the religious institutions and senior citizens cooperative, canal cleaning, ponds cleaning and digging, river cleaning project will be augmented and necessary financial and time being policing (police patrolling and protection) will be provided in case of requirement.
16) Lake/Ponds produce should be the property of that area, whereas river produce will be of the entire nation and, as such, responsibility of its maintenance also belongs to that concern.
17) Check dams, rainwater harvesting, use of solar energy, wind energy and biogas will be promoted.
18) Education system must accommodate importance of environmental balance and individual action required for it.
Act of living and art of living gets enlightened through yoga, dance and Tantra and these are needed for happy, healthy and holy life in the cosmos.

EMPLOYMENT GENERATION

For the employment it is said that
Uttam kheti, madhayam wan,
Nikrisht Chakri, Bheekh nidan.
(Best is agriculture, middle is commerce (business), lower is service,
and begging is the last resort).
Current scenario world over indicates rising temperature (global warming), changing weather, rising pollution, lowering of ground water level, draught, flood, stressful life in cities, and appearance of newer and newer disease, which do suggests to plan afresh for learning, learning and earning and working and earning.
Following is submitted:
1) Rising temperature and consequent research indicates:
That ten-lakh tree of bigger size (e.g. Neem, Pipal, Banayan, Mango, etc.) will reduce the temperature of Bangalore like cities, by two to three degree Celsius.
Bharat will have to plant ten-lakh trees in each city and five lakh in each block. Ownership right on produces and on cutting will be of its planter and up keeper even on government land. Necessary correction in forest act will have to be done.
It is expected that Tree plantation sector will create employment and self-employment opportunity in a large number. So-called scheduled tribes the protector of jungle also need similar rights. If need arises or if the unemployment level increases more than ten percent than we may think of banning fuel oil or electricity driven machineries in agriculture and forest land.
2) To create and sustain job/work it is necessary that primary work has to be physical, secondary as semiautomatic, tertiary as technology driven. In this way entire agriculture sector has to be physically/manually operated, packaging of food product has to be semiautomatic and maintenance of cold storage has to be automatic.
Jobs will have to be provided in
a) Creation of small to middle size cities (like Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh and smaller like public sector complexes in various part of the country).
b) Making of check dam, digging and cleaning of ponds, lakes, canal and river.
(3) In the entire West the requirement of manpower in various categories is bound to increase (because of declining birth rate); we may think of manpower import and export in respectable way.
(4) With the rising internet, intranet and information technology it is viewed that after 2015-2020 information and other technology will not have any added value, hence it is not prudent for us to venture in it in a big way.
In employment creation effort will have to be made to ensure the minimum wages being paid by employing agencies. This will have to be ensured through various political workers of ruling and opposition party. Along with minimum wages, limit of maximum fees asked/charged will have to be streamlined (ratio of minimum and maximum wages need not be more than fifteen times. Checks and balances on minimum and maximum wages need to be made through political worker and senior citizen society in place of labour inspector and labour court.
It is viewed that in coming years employment will revolve around security, food, fashion, energy and entertainment in luxury of Nature. We must create and follow the trend.


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